EFEK FORTIFIKASI VITAMIN B12 TERHADAP KADAR VITAMIN B12 SERUM DAN HOMOSISTEIN SERUM PADA VEGETARIAN

  • Susianto Susianto STIKes Kuningan Garawangi

Abstract

Introduction: Vegetarians consume plant-based foods with or without eggs and milk. Vegetarians are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency, as natural sources of vitamin B12 are limited to animal-based foods. Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anemia, nerve damage and increase homocysteine level. Higher homocysteine level can increase the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin B12 fortification on the level of serum vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegetarian. Method: The research design was an experimental study, community trial. The samples were 42 vegetarians with vitamin B12 deficiency (< 156 pmol/L) selected from 118 vegetarians as members of Indonesia Vegetarian Society (IVS) Pekanbaru, treated by vitamin B12 fortified oatmeal for three months from March to June 2010.  Serum vitamin B12 and homocysteine were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay and microparticle enzyme immunoassay method respectively.

Result: Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarian was 35.6%. Statistical analysis showed a significant increase of serum vitamin B12 from 124.6 to 284.6 pmol/L (p=0.001) and significant decrease of serum homocysteine from 20.1 to 15.1 µmol/L (p=0.001).

Conclusion: Consumption of vitamin B12 fortified oatmeal increases the level of serum vitamin B12 and decreases the level of serum homocysteine significantly in vegetarian with vitamin B12 deficiency.

References

American Dietetic Association (ADA). (2009). Vegetarian Diet. J Am Diet Assoc., 109, 1266-1282.
Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2004). Angka Kecukupan Gizi Bagi Orang Indonesia. Jakarta: Direktorat Gizi Masyarakat, Depkes RI.
Heimburger, D.C. & Ard, J.D. (2006). Handbook of Clinical Nutrition. (4th Eds.). Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.
Herbert, V. (1994). Staging vitamin B12 (cobalamin) status in vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr., 59, 1213S–1222S.
Hermana, H., Karmini, M. & Affandi, E. (1997). Symbiosis of Rhizopus sp. and Vitamin B12 Forming Bacteria dan Gastrointestinal Pathological Findings. Proceedings International Tempeh Symposium, Bali. Indonesian Tempeh Foundation, Jakarta, Indonesia
Herrmann, W., et al. (2001). Total homocysteine, vitamin B12, and total antioxidant status in vegetarians. Clin Chem., 47, 1094–1101.
Herrmann, W., et al. (2003). Vitamin B12 status, particularly holotranscobalamin II and methylmalonic acid concentrations, and hyper-homocysteinemia in vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr., 78, 131–136.
Hu, F.B. (2003). Plant-based foods and prevention of cardiovascular disease: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr., 78 (suppl): 544S-551S.
International Vegetarian Union (IVU). (2001). IVU News, Volume 7. Cheshire, UK.
Koyama et al. (2002). Efficacy of methylcobalamin on lowering total homocysteine plasma concentrations in haemodialysis patients receiving high-dosefolid acid supplementation, Nephrology Dyalisis Transplantation 17, 916-922.
Pawiroharsono, S. (1996). Aspek Mikrobiologi Tempeh, Bunga Rampai Tempeh Indonesia. Jakarta: Yayasan Tempeh Indonesia.
Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. (1999). Vitamin B12 : A
Simple Solution, Washington, PCRM.
Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM). (2007). Animal Products Increase Cancer Risk, While Plant Foods Reduce It. Washington DC.
Rauma, A.L. & Mykkanen, H. (2000). Antioxidant status in vegetarians versus omnivores. Nutrition., 16, 111–119.
Sizer, F.S. & Whitney, E.N. (2006). Nutrition – Concepts and Controversies. (7th Eds.). West/Wadsworth, USA, An International Thomson Publishing Company.
Stipanuk, M.H. (2006). Biochemical, Physiological, Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition. (2nd Eds.). Missouri, USA: Saunders, Elsevier Inc.
Susenas. (2009). Perkembangan Penduduk Miskin 2009. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
Walsh, S. (2007). Plant Based Nutrition and Health. London: The Vegan Society.
Winkels, R.M., et al. (2008). Bread cofortified with folic acid and vitamin B12 improves the folate and vitamin B12 status of healthy older people: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr., 88, 348-355.
Published
2020-06-29
How to Cite
Susianto, S. (2020). EFEK FORTIFIKASI VITAMIN B12 TERHADAP KADAR VITAMIN B12 SERUM DAN HOMOSISTEIN SERUM PADA VEGETARIAN. Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan Bhakti Husada: Health Sciences Journal, 11(1), 114-120. https://doi.org/10.34305/jikbh.v11i1.150